The Iron and Steel, together with the cement industry, has hard-to-avoid CO2 emissions. The Iron and Steel industry alone is responsible for an annual output of 2.5-3.0 GtCO2/yr, with up to 10% originating from within the European Union. This represents 6% of total CO2 emissions, and 16% of total industrial CO2 emission. Moreover, a continuous average growth-rate of more than 3% per year is expected for the Iron and Steel industry in the foreseeable future. To avoid long-term climate change, every industrial sector must look to improving energy efficiency and decreasing C-footprint, as reaffirmed in the COP21 negotiations. The technology developed in the STEPWISE project has the potential to decrease CO2 emissions worldwide by at least 1.5 Gt/yr based on current steel industry emission levels, with options for the same technology going forward that can decrease emissions even more.
  The STEPWISE project aims to decrease CO2 emissions related to the steel making process from about 2 tCO2/tsteel towards 0.5 tCO2/tsteel by means of CO2 removal from the Blast Furnace Gas. Translating this to worldwide scale, the technology being demonstrated in the Stepwise project has the potential to decrease the worldwide CO2 emissions by 2.1 Gt/yr based on current emission levels. The conservative estimate is that by 2050 a potential cost saving of 750 times the project research costs will be realized every year, with a much larger potential. The overall objective is to secure jobs in the highly competitive European steel industry, a sector employing 360,000 skilled people with an annual turnover of 170 billion euro.
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